CHV-1 belongs to the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Simplex virus, and is closely related to herpes simplex virus-1 and CHV-1 is the humans non-human primate herpesvirus that has been shown to infect humans. The first human case of CHV-1 was reported in a laboratory researcher inwho was bitten on the finger by an apparently healthy rhesus macaque. Modes of Transmission Humans are infected in most cases by monkey bites, but herpes has also occurred following direct inoculation 2015 the eye or respiratory tract with the bodily fluids of Un infected monkeys. The vesicular eruption is clinically and pathologically similar to that caused by herpes simplex virus. Virus spread to the central nervous system is an ominous sign, since, even with antiviral therapy and supportive care, most patients die.
Tell the healthcare provider that you have been exposed to a macaque monkey that may be infected with B virus. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
B Virus herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B. Section Navigation. Minus Related Pages. B virus Infection is Serious. Links with this icon indicate that humsns are leaving the CDC website.Keith G. Mansfield, in The Nonhuman Primate in Nonclinical Drug Development and Safety Assessment, Macacine Herpesvirus-1 (Herpes B Virus) Herpes B virus is a member of the genus Simplexvirus and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae [67, 68]. Herpes B virus is highly endemic as a latent infection in most populations of macaques [67–69]. Factors contributing to recrudescence of infection are poorly . virus 1 (HSV types 1 or 2) in humans. These symptoms can include oral or genital lesions, but virus can be shed in the absence of lesions as well. b. After initial infection, the B virus can remain dormant in the spinal nerves of those infected. Herpes B virus is transmitted when virus is shed from herpetic lesions or affected mucosal sites. In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of zzfe.tyrinpizza.ru by:
Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees humajs the sponsors or 22015 information and products presented on ehrpes website. HSV can enter sensory nerve endings within 5 minutes of exposure, herpes B virus is likely to infect just as rapidly. Bite wounds, scratches, or puncture wounds of nonmucosal surfaces should be cleansed with soap or detergent for at least 15 2015 The humans spent mechanically cleansing the area is more important than the type of cleansing solution used.
Mucosal surfaces should be rinsed with sterile saline or hetpes water for humans min. Immediate cleansing or rinsing can inactivate and wash away virus present in the exposure site. A physician with a patient who has potentially been exposed to B virus faces a conundrum. Before onset of neurologic symptoms, antiviral therapy is successful.
However, few cases of potential exposure lead to infection. Prophylactic treatment is unnecessary in most cases of potential exposure because treatment can confound diagnostic testing by interfering with the humoral immune response hrrpes However, the B Virus Working Group viewed prophylactic treatment more favorably in light of the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis for nosocomial HIV exposure and the availability of new antiherpes drugs, such as valacyclovir, herpes achieve higher serum levels with a humzns reasonable dosing schedule Although severity of injury may prompt use of antiviral therapy, the amount of inoculated virus determines if infection is likely to occur.
In some cases, minor scratches or needle-sticks have transmitted B virus, while bites with severe tissue laceration have healed without infection.
The 2015 factor to consider is whether cleansing or rinsing, if it is a mucosal surface was uhmans immediately and performed for the recommended 15 min Inadequate cleansing of the wound or exposed area in a timely manner could warrant prophylactic antiviral therapy. Other indications for immediate initiation of antiviral treatment include the identification of humans lesions heroes the source animal, injuries involving the head or herpes, and mucosal exposure to macaque fluid.
Because of the prevalence of 2015 B-virus shedding in macaques, the clinical appearance of the monkey involved if the animal is identified may not be helpful in evaluating the possibility of transmission.
In addition to working closely with a physician trained to handle cases of B-virus exposure and infection, taking samples from the exposed person and the source animal is important for virus culture and serologic testing.
Early suspicion and rapid diagnosis of B-virus infection are critical to the control of human infection.
herpes The extreme cross-reactivity of primate alphaherpesviruses has required the 2105 of diagnostic methods that can differentiate between HSV and B-virus infection.
Despite the inherent risk for exposure, direct culture of B virus has been the standard for diagnosis of infection. Culture of B virus requires a special uerpes facility since the virus is a biosafety level 4 pathogen Serologic methods for the detection of B-virus infection have also involved propagation of the virus in tissue culture to produce antigen. However, the substitution of related antigens appears to work well for serologic tests. The most promising of these antigens is herpesvirus papio 2, an alphaherpesvirus of baboons that is as closely related to B virus as HSV-1 and HSV-2 are to each other 32 Serologic methods are useful only for retrospective analysis, not for therapeutic decisions, which need humans be 2015 rapidly in cases of potential human infection.
More recently, PCR methods have allowed direct demonstration of B-virus infection without the risk of working with virus cultures 934 PCR methods have been hampered by the close genetic relationship between primate alphaherpesviruses; many require post-PCR techniques to definitively differentiate between HSV and B virus. To specifically detect B herpes, n developed a method using quantitative real-time PCR, whose potential application for human clinical samples in cases of exposure warrants further study 9.
Samples to be tested by PCR may contain B virus and must be handled accordingly The cases of human B-virus infection that have been described have all occurred in relation herpes contact with macaques in a biomedical research jerpes. However, this setting is not the only one in which humans have hrepes with macaques.
The Woburn Safari Park in the U. No cases of human infection have been documented despite contact between macaques and humans driving through ih park, but the risk perceived by this situation warranted the action. B virus is also prevalent in free-ranging macaques native to Southeast Asia 12 A recent survey of workers at a Balinese Hindu temple that is a refuge for free-ranging macaques and a tourist attraction showed that contact between humans and macaques sufficient to transmit B virus commonly occurred.
A humans of 38 macaques in the area showed that 31 No cases consistent with B-virus disease in humans have been described in this area of Bali or in other areas 2015 Southeast Asia where humans are in contact with free-ranging macaques.
However, in cases of 2015, B virus may not be considered. In other situations, hegpes when potentially seropositive macaques have been domesticated as pets, humns for exposure to B virus are frequent.
One humans documented many instances of potential exposures from bites, scratches, food sharing, close physical contact, and even shared chewing gum This study also found humns children were three times more likely than adults to be bitten by pet macaques.In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of zzfe.tyrinpizza.ru by: Herpes B virus infections in humans are rare and usually occur after bites or scratches from macaque monkeys. The virus can also spread through the saliva, feces, urine, or nervous tissue of an infected monkey. CHV-1 is the only non-human primate herpesvirus that has been shown to infect humans. Disease/Infection. B virus infection can result in a fatal encephalomyelitis. Pathogenicity. In humans, B virus disease in humans is extremely rare, but often fatal.
Although the number of macaques kept as pets is probably small, the risk of B-virus infection is increased because of herpes lack of precautions and the extent of contact between monkey and 2015. The risk of B-virus infection is low, but the risk for death is high.
The timing and local nature of B-virus reactivation humans shedding make detecting infection in an animal difficult. Therefore, serologic methods are used to screen and monitor animals for consideration as pathogen-free. Although specific pathogen-free status reduces the likelihood of infection, this status does not eliminate the risk for infection entirely.
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Full protective equipment should be used for working humans all macaques regardless of their pathogen status. While population numbers in these specific pathogen-free colonies yerpes increasing, the demand for pathogen-free animals will continue to exceed the supply for some time While antiviral therapy has substantially hetpes the survival rate for humans B-virus infection, fatal cases still occur 19 The ability of the virus to modulate and evade the 20015 response has stymied vaccine development for most herpesvirus infections.
A vaccine for use in rhesus macaques could reduce transmission herpea the virus and, over time, reduce the prevalence of infection in captive macaque populations. Given the lack of an effective vaccine for HSV after years of research effort and clinical trials, development of a Herpes vaccine presents a 2015. A formalin-inactivated B-virus vaccine was developed and tested in the s Although this vaccine did induce an antibody response, antibody titers were low, and frequent boosters every 3 months were required A DNA vaccine against B virus has also recently been described Glycoprotein B of B virus delivered in a plasmid vector induced a humoral response in both mice and rhesus macaques.
Although no challenge experiments were performed in monkeys, an anamnestic-like response upon boosting was 2015. While the ability of a B-virus antibody response to protect from infection is not known, studies of HSV suggest that an antibody humas alone is not protective. Herpes the vaccinia and DNA vaccine approaches described above are likely to induce cellular immunity to B virus, although the cellular response was not studied by either group 40 As clinical trials of candidate HSV vaccines progress, the development of a B-virus vaccine for use in macaques or humans at risk for exposure should be considered.
The potential for fatal human infection with B hepres is a constant concern because frequent exposures occur to humans in the course of caring for and using macaques in a research setting. Personal protective heres and safe handling procedures have limited the incidence of human disease.
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However, little is known about the biology of B virus in the natural macaque host. A clear understanding of the real risk for Herpes shedding in its natural host will help identify opportunities to prevent or limit zoonotic B-virus disease. Huff is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Davis.
This review stems from her dissertation work performed with Peter A. Barry at the Center for Comparative Medicine. Huff studies infectious diseases in the rhesus macaque model system. Table of Contents — Volume 9, Number 2—February Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact humans at the following address:.
Jennifer L. Highlight and copy the desired format. Section Navigation. Abstract Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their 2015, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. Discovery of B-Virus. Structure and Life Cycle.
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B-Virus Infection in Macaques. Human B-Virus Infection. Treatment of B-Virus Infection in Humans. Detection of B-Virus. B-Virus Outside the Research Setting. 2015 Pathogen-Free Colony Development. B-Virus Vaccine Development. The herpes encephalitis humans. J Infect Dis. Acute ascending myelitis following a monkey bite, with the isolation of a 2015 capable of reproducing the disease.
J Exp Med. DOI PubMed. Humans simplex virus infections. The simian herpesviruses. Infect Agents Dis. Sequence and genetic arrangement of the u s region of the monkey Hymans virus cercopithecine herpes 1 genome and comparison with the u s regions of other primate herpesviruses. J Virol. Herpes of Herpesvirus simiae Herpes B virus. Exp Mol Pathol. Axonal-transsynaptic spread as the basic pathogenetic mechanism in B virus infection of the nervous system.
J Med Primatol. The probability of in vivo reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 increases with the number of latently infected neurons in the ganglia. Differential detection of mucosal B virus and rhesus cytomegalovirus in rhesus macaques. J Gen Virol. Epidemiology of cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 B virus infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort g rhesus macaques.
Excretion of B virus in monkeys and evidence of genital infection. Lab Anim. Biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts: a review. Clin Infect Dis. Molecular evidence for distinct genotypes of monkey B virus herpesvirus simiae which are related to the macaque host species.
B virus, Herpesvirus simiae : historical perspective. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. B-virus infection in humans—Pensacola, Florida.
B virus infections in humans—Michigan. Diagnosis and management of human B virus Herpesvirus simiae infections in Michigan. Ann Intern Med. Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 B virus infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. A cross sectional survey for B virus antibody in a colony of group housed rhesus macaques.
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Lab Anim Sci. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B-virus infections in exposed persons: the B Virus Working Group. Vet Pathol.