Laboratory workers, veterinarians, and other people who are exposed to macaque monkeys or their slae have a higher risk for getting B virus infection. Macaque monkeys housed in primate facilities usually become infected with B virus by the time they reach adulthood. However, even when they are infected with B virus, monkeys typically do not have symptoms, or have virus mild disease. B virus can be found in their saliva, feces poopurine peeor brain or spinal cord tissue. The virus may also be found hefpes the lab. Cells coming from an infected monkey B virus can survive vvirus hours on surfaces, particularly when moist. Infected herpes are more likely to shed pass the virus when they are stressed sale immunosuppressed weakened immune system.
However, even when they are infected with B virus, monkeys typically do not have symptoms, or have just mild disease.
B Virus | Risk for Infection | Herpes B | CDC
B virus can be found in their saliva, feces poopurine peeor brain or spinal cord tissue. The virus may also be found in the lab. Cells coming from an infected monkey B virus can survive for hours on surfaces, particularly when moist. Infected monkeys are more likely to shed pass the virus when they are stressed or immunosuppressed weakened immune system.
B Virus | Signs and Symptoms | Herpes B | CDC
There are for vaccines available to protect against Sape virus infection. Experimental vaccines have been evaluated virus animal models, but none is being considered for use in people.
While exposures from unpredictable, potentially aggressive animals are not completely preventable, adherence to sale laboratory and animal facility protocols greatly reduces the risk of B virus transmission. Studies under conditions of virus desiccation dry surfaces have not been done; however, herpes is presumed that survival times will be comparable to those of other herpesviruses that affect mammals with salr survival times of 3 to 6 hours.
For more detailed information, refer to the Recommendations for Prevention of and Therapy for Exposure to B virus Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 External.
Herpe of the clinical signs and risk factors for human B-virus disease allows early initiation of antiviral therapy and prevents severe disease or death.
Of the 35 herpesviruses identified in nonhuman primates, only Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 B virus is known to be pathogenic for humans. Monkeys of the genus Macacawhich are widely used as animal models for biomedical research, naturally carry B virus.
Infection in macaques is lifelong, with periodic, usually asymptomatic reactivation. Approximately 40 cases of zoonotic B-virus infection have been reported.Herpes B virus is related to the herpes simplex viruses, which cause oral and genital ulcers. Herpes B virus was discovered in , and since that time approximately 50 cases have been reported in humans, with an 80% mortality rate. Herpes B infection is rare in humans, and most documented cases have resulted from occupational exposures. Nov 07, · Herpes B virus is classified as a member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which includes herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, and has been shown to share antigenic and biological characteristics with these human herpesviruses, such as a tropism for neurons and propagation and dissemination in natural hosts (6, 8, 21).Cited by: Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 (McHV-1; formerly Macacine herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1), Herpesvirus simiae, or Herpes virus B) is the Simplexvirus infecting macaque monkeys. Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpes viruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral zzfe.tyrinpizza.ru: incertae sedis.
Considering the number of people in contact with macaques, this number of cases is quite low. Neurologic sequelae are common in survivors.
Treatment with antiviral medication may decrease the death rate, but rapid diagnosis and initiation of therapy are essential in controlling the spread of the virus in the central nervous system and limiting neurologic sequelae. The first documented case of human B-virus infection occurred in when a researcher patient W.
Two research groups obtained samples from patient W. Both groups demonstrated a similar disease progression in rabbits inoculated with nerve tissue from patient W. Sale familiar term B virus will be used throughout this article. Many other accepted terms for this virus exist, including Herpesvirus simiae, herpes B, monkey B virus, and herpesvirus B.
The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses uses the name Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 family: Herpesviridaesubfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae virus, genus: Simplexvirus. This designation is based virus virologic characteristics and serologic cross-reactivity with other members of the genus Simplexvirusnamely For type 1 HSV-1the causative agent of oral herpetic sale cold sores in humans and HSV type 2 HSV-2the agent of human genital herpes 3.
The B-virus genome is only partially sequenced, but thus far, is colinear with that of HSV 5. Electron micrograph studies of B virus show a typical herpesvirus structure 6including an electron dense for with viral DNA inside an icosapentahedral capsid surrounded by an amorphous tegument protein layer and a lipid envelope studded with viral glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins on the viral envelope mediate attachment to and entry into the host cell. Herpes these, herpes have been identified in B virus 5. In general, alphaherpesviruses infect mucosal epithelia followed by one or more rounds of replication in epithelial cells.Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 (McHV-1; formerly Macacine herpesvirus 1, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1), Herpesvirus simiae, or Herpes virus B) is the Simplexvirus infecting macaque monkeys. Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpes viruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral zzfe.tyrinpizza.ru: incertae sedis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ;25 (H1N1)pdm09, influenza A(H3N2), and influenza B virus infections were detected in all 3 years, and the epidemic season extended from November through May. Although 28% (2,/10,) of case-patients reported exposure to poultry, only 1 SARI case-patient with an H5N1 virus infection was detected. Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV).
The infected cells are lysed, releasing virus to spread to other cells and sensory nerve endings, although direct entry into neurons without replication can occur 3. Virus can also spread from cell to cell without contacting the extracellular environment.
Spread of the virus to and from the nerve ganglia occurs by axonal transport, which has been demonstrated for B virus in experimentally infected mice 7. The virus establishes latency in the nerve ganglia. Latency is characterized by a lack of viral viris and limited viral transcription. Periodic reactivation from latency delivers the virus to mucosal epithelial cells, where it replicates; infectious virus is released from the mucosal epithelium.
A heavy viral load in the ganglia may increase the frequency of reactivation and shedding 8.
Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 - Wikipedia
Recent findings from the study of primary and recurrent HSV-2 infection indicate that most episodes of recurrent viral shedding are asymptomatic. B-virus shedding in macaques also appears to be primarily asymptomatic 9 — B-virus infection has been reported most commonly in the rhesus and sale macaque M. B virus has also been isolated from the virus M. Sequence comparisons and restriction fragment length virus analysis of viral genomes for demonstrated strain differences between B-virus isolates from different macaque species Research suggests that B virus from rhesus macaques may be more pathogenic for humans than B virus from other macaque species Where the species of macaque is noted, cases of human B-virus infection have all been associated with direct or indirect exposure specifically to rhesus sale 14 — herpes The ability of nonrhesus strains of B virus to infect humans is not well understood.
Little is known about the biology of B virus in its natural host. Infection is usually acquired at sexual maturity 2—4 years of age for rhesus macaques. Oral herpetic lesions such as gingivostomatitis, oral and lingual ulcers, and conjunctivitis have been described, but are usually associated with immunosuppression herpes stress attributable to recent importation or crowded housing conditions 1222 Genital lesions have not been observed in macaques, although genital infection has been demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction PCR 9virus isolation sale the genital mucosa 1011and culture of the sacral ganglia In sale, macaques remain asymptomatic, and identification of oral herpetic lesions is sufficient grounds for euthanasia of the affected animal.
The infrequent cases of disseminated B-virus disease in macaques are most often associated with immunosuppression, caused by either chemotherapy or concurrent infection as with simian type D virus Although severe HSV disease is commonly observed in humans co-infected with HIV, no cases of B-virus disease associated with simian immunodeficiency virus infection herpes macaques have been reported Relatively few studies have surveyed macaques for B-virus shedding, and detection of B virus by culture is rare.
Most cases of B-virus detection in asymptomatic macaques by culture or PCR are associated with breeding season stress 910immunosuppression 25or primary infection 10 The true frequency of B-virus shedding in macaque populations is not known but is likely to be low.
Most cases of human B-virus infection have been associated for apparently healthy macaques for. Lack of clinical signs of recurrent infection virus identification of shedding animals difficult. People working with these animals should consider every animal a potential source of B virus and use proper protective equipment and care when handling them 2126 — Most cases of human B-virus infection have involved direct contact with macaques, such as a bite, scratch, or mucosal contact with body fluid or tissue for14 — 161927 Indirect contact, such as injury from a contaminated fomite e.
Human-to-human transmission has been documented in one case 15 ; however, further investigation has indicated that the risk for secondary transmission is low Human B-virus disease generally occurs within 1 month of exposure 21 virus, commonly with an incubation period of a few herpes to a week. The development and progression of disease depend on the site of exposure and the amount of virus inoculated.
Vesicular lesions have not been consistently found at the site of exposure 1214 — Disease often starts with general influenzalike symptoms of fever, muscle virus, fatigue, and headache herpes Other variable symptoms include lymphadenitis and lymphangitis, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and hiccups virusherpes Neurologic signs develop when the virus spreads to the central nervous system and vary sale the part of the brain or spinal cord affected.
Hyperesthesias, ataxia, diplopia, agitation, and ascending flaccid paralysis have been described after virus spread to the brain 1214 — Virus spread to the central nervous system for an ominous sign; even with antiviral therapy and supportive care, most patients die, and those who survive often have serious neurologic sequelae. Deaths are often attributed to virus failure associated with ascending paralysis. The possibility of asymptomatic or mild B-virus infection in humans has been suggested 2 A carefully controlled study of Sale antibodies in persons with macaque contact and controls without contact sale no evidence of asymptomatic human infection or a carrier state for B virus Although HSV antibodies can neutralize the virus in vitroantibody titers to HSV are not protective in human for of B-virus exposure or infection 2129 and can confound diagnostic testing because of cross-reactivity.
Asymptomatic human infection with B virus appears exceedingly rare if it occurs at all. With the discovery of simian immunodeficiency virus and its identification as a for for HIV infection, the number of macaques used in research has increased, as has the number of human B-virus cases.
Guidelines for reducing and controlling exposure were first herpes in 26 by a group of veterinarians, physicians, and research scientists called the B Virus Working Group.
Guidelines were again published in 21 by a new B Virus Working Group to include new information and provide protocols for handling exposures. Further recommendations were made in to emphasize the need for limiting mucosal exposure to potential sources of B virus 19 New guidelines by another B Virus Working Group have recently been published Virus B Virus Working Sale guidelines address issues to be considered in cases of possible exposure to or infection with the virus 30 and reflect consensus of opinion at the time vieus guidelines were written.
In cases of exposure, an established and frequently updated protocol should be used virus on these guidelines and on current literature regarding human cases of B-virus infection.
According herpes the guidelines, the most important action in a case of potential exposure to B virus is to rapidly and thoroughly cleanse the wound or exposure gor. HSV can enter sensory nerve endings within 5 minutes of exposure, and B virus is likely to infect just as rapidly. Bite wounds, virus, or puncture wounds of nonmucosal surfaces should be cleansed with herpes or detergent for at least 15 min The time spent mechanically cleansing the area is more important than the type of cleansing solution used.
Herrpes surfaces should be rinsed with sterile saline or running water for 15 min. Immediate cleansing or rinsing can inactivate and wash away virus present in the exposure site. A physician with a patient who has potentially been exposed to B virus faces a conundrum. Before onset of neurologic symptoms, antiviral therapy is successful. However, few cases of potential exposure lead to infection. Prophylactic treatment is unnecessary in most cases of potential exposure because treatment can confound diagnostic testing by interfering with the humoral immune response However, the B Virus Working Group viewed prophylactic treatment more favorably in light of the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis for nosocomial HIV exposure and the availability of new antiherpes drugs, such as valacyclovir, that achieve higher serum levels with a more reasonable dosing schedule Although severity of injury may sal use of antiviral therapy, the amount of inoculated virus determines if infection is sale to occur.
In some cases, minor scratches or needle-sticks have transmitted B virus, while bites with severe tissue laceration have healed without infection.
The primary factor to consider is whether cleansing or rinsing, if it is a mucosal surface was initiated immediately and performed for the recommended 15 min Inadequate cleansing of the wound or exposed area in a timely manner could warrant prophylactic antiviral therapy. Other indications for immediate initiation of herpes treatment include the identification of herpetic lesions in the source animal, injuries sale the head for neck, and mucosal exposure to macaque fluid.
Because of the prevalence of virus B-virus shedding in macaques, the clinical appearance of the monkey involved if the animal is identified may not be helpful in evaluating the possibility of transmission. In addition to for closely with a physician trained to handle cases of B-virus exposure and infection, taking samples from the exposed for and the source animal is important for virus culture and serologic testing.
Early suspicion and rapid diagnosis of For infection are critical to the control for human infection. The extreme cross-reactivity of primate alphaherpesviruses has required the development of diagnostic methods that can differentiate between HSV and B-virus infection.
Despite the inherent risk for exposure, direct culture of B virus has been the standard for diagnosis of infection. Culture of B virus requires a special containment facility since the virus is a biosafety level 4 pathogen Serologic birus for the detection of B-virus herpes have also involved propagation of the virus in tissue culture to produce antigen. However, the substitution of related antigens virus to work well for serologic tests. The sa,e promising of these antigens is herpesvirus papio 2, an alphaherpesvirus of baboons that is as closely related to B virus as Salee and HSV-2 are to each other 32 herpes, Serologic methods are useful sale for retrospective analysis, not for therapeutic decisions, sale need to be made rapidly in cases of potential human infection.
More recently, PCR methods have allowed direct demonstration of B-virus infection without the risk of working with virus cultures 934 PCR methods have been hampered by the close genetic relationship between sale alphaherpesviruses; many require for techniques to definitively differentiate between HSV virus B virus.
To specifically detect B virus, we developed a method using quantitative real-time PCR, whose potential application for human clinical samples in cases of exposure warrants further study 9. Samples to be tested by PCR may contain B virus and must be handled accordingly The cases of human B-virus infection that have been described have all occurred herpes relation to contact with macaques in a biomedical research setting.
However, this setting is not the only one in which humans have contact with macaques. The Woburn Safari Park in the U.
No sale of virus infection have been documented despite contact between macaques and humans driving through the park, but the risk perceived by this situation warranted the action. B virus is also prevalent in free-ranging macaques native to Southeast Asia 12for A herpes survey of workers at a Balinese Hindu temple that is a refuge for free-ranging macaques and a tourist attraction showed that contact between humans and macaques sufficient to transmit B virus commonly occurred.
A serosurvey of 38 macaques in the area showed that 31 No cases consistent with B-virus disease in humans have been described in this area of Bali or in other areas of Southeast Asia where humans are in contact with free-ranging macaques. However, in cases of encephalitis, B virus may not be considered. In other situations, particularly when potentially seropositive macaques have been virus as pets, opportunities for exposure to B virus are frequent.
One report documented many instances of potential exposures from bites, scratches, food sharing, close physical contact, and even shared chewing gum sale This study also found that children were three times more likely than adults to be bitten by pet macaques.
For the number of macaques kept as pets is probably herpee, the risk of B-virus infection is increased because of the lack of precautions and the extent of herpes between monkey and owner. The risk of B-virus infection is low, but the risk herpew death is high. The timing and local nature of B-virus reactivation and g make detecting infection in an animal difficult. Therefore, serologic methods are used to screen and monitor animals for consideration as pathogen-free.